Daniel Oppenheimer, College of Natural Sciences | March 22, 2011
In 2002, Elizabeth Gershoff published the first-ever meta-analysis of research (PDF) on the effects of corporal punishment on children.
Now an associate professor in the
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, Gershoff continues to delve into the impact of spanking (and other, more severe forms of physical punishment) on children. She also looks more broadly at the impacts of poverty, community violence and neighborhoods on child and youth development over time.
Is spanking still a common practice in the U.S.?
Most parents still spank, but they do it a lot less frequently than their parents did. Most parents who do spank do it once a month or less, maybe only a couple of times a year. So the prevalence of spanking is still very high (i.e., most parents do it) but the incidence is not (i.e., they don't do it very often).
Is it still the case that the vast majority of children in the U.S. are spanked by their parents at some point?
By the time American children reach middle and high school, 85 percent have been physically punished, either with a spanking or something harsher.
Can you sum up what research has to tell us about the effects of spanking on children?
There's been a lot of research on spanking, going back all the way to the early 1900s, and almost all of it has showed that spanking is associated with negative outcomes for children. It is associated with more aggressive and anti-social behaviors in children. The more frequently or severely children are spanked or hit, the more likely they are to have symptoms of depression or anxiety, both at the time they're punished and later. There is evidence to suggest that it erodes the connection between children and their parents, making children less likely to trust their parents. There's even evidence that it is linked with lower child IQ scores.
Several years ago, I published a research meta-analysis, which statistically summarized the outcomes associated with spanking across 89 studies. I found that the only positive outcome linked with corporal punishment was immediate compliance. The more children were spanked, the more they complied in that moment. Over the long term, however, and when their parents weren't there, spanking did not increase compliance. Even just two weeks later, it didn't seem to make a difference.
Are people more stressed or are they just finding more time to relax? Consumer spending for the top 10 self-care mobile apps is up 40 percent year over year for Q1 2018. For the quarter, We’re looking at approximately
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estimates. Self-care apps are used for meditation, mindfulness, relaxation and mental/emotional healing. New installs of these apps are also up, to the tune of 36% YOY .
, which won Apple’s much sought after App of the Year award in 2017, and
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are the two big money makers in this space. Together, they created about 88% of Q1 2018 revenue among these 10 apps. Calm specifically has seen massive MAU growth, up 81% YOY . In comparison, Headspace grew MAU 26% during the same timeframe. This type of growth for Calm likely piqued investor interest, recently landing the company nike air force 1 black green purple bird
After receiving the award from Apple, its U.S. download rank rose 222 spots, from #281 to #59 overall. As you can see below, it’s overall U.S. grossing rank has been growing consistently over the past 365 days. If we zoom into the Health Fitness category , Calm’s grossing rank almost never drops out of the top 10.
Calm and Headspace both sell subscriptions rather than individual purchases. The subscriptions unlock guided tailored meditation sessions. Depending on the user’s commitment and how often they want to be billed, subscriptions for Calm range from $9.99 - $59.99. Headspace is similar but it has the option to pay a one-time $399.99 fee which unlocks the product for life.
Calm lets users try the app for free for 7 days and Headspace does the same for 10 days. Looking at 14 day user retention for U.S. users, both apps retain about 7% of new downloads past that point, leading us to infer about 7% of all installs end up becoming paying customers at least for a month .7% of all installs end up becoming paying customers at least for a month
Placement in a Chinese language class follows the
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To maximize your learning opportunities and enjoy yourself in a learning community that is conducive to everyone in your class, students who are interested in taking a Chinese language course at Dukehave to follow the procedures below for placement.
If you have further questions regarding the courses below 100-level, please consult with Professor Tianshu He, the Coordinator of First Year Chinese, at
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. If you have questions about the Chinese language curriculum, Duke Study in China program, or further questions regarding the courses above 100-level, please consult the Director of the Chinese Program Professor Carolyn Lee at [email protected] .
The self-placement guidelines below are divided into two sections: “Placement Guidelines for Regular-Track Curriculum” and “Placement Guidelines for Alternative-Track Curriculum.” Students who receives a score of 4/5 on the AP Chinese exam will automatically pass
(Intermediate Chinese) and be eligible to take a Chinese course at
(Advanced Intermediate Chinese) or above. Students who speak a Chinese dialect at home but barely understand Mandarin Chinese may take
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(First-Year Chinese I) in the regular-track curriculum. Please note that students who lived in a Chinese speaking country such as China, Singapore or Taiwan into their teenage years and received schooling higher than the elementary level in any Chinese speaking country are considered to be native speakers. The student who finished secondary school is only eligible for courses at or above CHINESE 455 (Modern Chinese Culture: Narratives of Home and Abroad) to fulfill language requirements.
Enroll in CHINESE 101 (First-Year Chinese I):
Enroll in CHINESE 102 (First-Year Chinese II):
Enroll in CHINESE 203 (Intermediate Chinese):
Enroll in CHINESE 204 (Intermediate Chinese):
Enroll in CHINESE 305 (Advanced Intermediate Chinese):
: Once you are ready to expose your uploaded files, you can publish them and make them visible and available to all Bintray users. Files can be published via the Bintray UI, or via the REST API, both as part of the
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You can resolve artifacts from and deploy them to Bintray directly using Gradle.
To resolve Maven artifacts from your Maven repository in Bintray use the following snippet in your Gradle configuration:
To deploy artifacts using Gradle you need to use the Gradle Bintray Plugin. For detailed instructions, please refer to the Gradle Bintray Plugin readme file on GitHub.
You can download a file directly using the following command:
To upload a file directly use the following command:
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is a one-stop-shop for Maven artifacts in Bintray. It is a large, popular, Maven repository that is managed by Bintray and is publicly available to all Bintray users.
As a Bintray user, you are able to
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